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RESEARCH IN CHINA

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RESEARCH IN CHINA

IN THREE VOLUMES AND ATLAS

VOLUME ONE IN TWO PARTS

PART ONE

DESCRIPTIVE TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY by

Bailey Willis, Eliot Blackwelder, and R, H. Sargent

WASHINGTON, D. C. PuBLISHED BY THE CarneciE Instirurion oF WasHINGTON AprRIL, 1907

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON

PuBLICATION No. 54

PRESS OF GIBSON BROTHERS, WASHINGTON, D. C.

CONTENTS. PART I. PREFACE CHAPTER I. —TorocRAPHic SURVETS, = Ri te Sargent Introduction

Surveys in Chi-li and. Shan- -si.

Pau-ting-fu to T’ang-hién Stadia traverse .

T’ang-hién to T’ai-yiian-fu Graphic triangulation Statistics of the survey

Surveys in Shen-si and Ssi-ch’uan

Chéu-chi-hién to Ts’in-ling summit Graphic triangulation

Ts’in-ling summit to Shi-ts’ iian- iaen Stadia traverse . :

Shi-ts’iian-hién to Hing-an-fu Boat traverse of the Han river

Hing-an-fu to Wu-shan-hién . Stadia traverse .

Magnetic declinations Sum mary

SECTION I.

eZ

NORTHEASTERN CHINA.

CHAPTER II.—STRATIGRAPHY OF SHAN-TUNG, by Eliot Blackwelder Pre-Cambrian T’ai-shan complex : Ancient schists and gneisses Granites Later intrusives. Unconformity at the base of the aan Sinian system Man-t’o formation In the Ch’ang-hia dence Stratigraphy Fossils from Man-t’o eiiake In the Sin-t’ai district Stratigraphy Fossils from Man-t’o shale Kiu-lung group or formation ' In the Ch’ang-hia district 2 Ch’ang-hia limestone ra Stratigraphy Oolitic limestones : ~ Fossils from Ch’ang-hia fimestone . 3 Ku-shan shale

Stratigraphy 1. aceite a nT

19 19 19 19 20 21 ay 24 eof 24 24 26 27 27 28 29 29 29 29 30 32 34 34

II CONTENTS.

CHAPTER II.—STRATIGRAPHY OF SHAN-TUNG—Continued. Ch’au-mi-tién limestone . 3 : 4 Stratigraphy . . Fossils from Ch’au-mi- tién Hestone In the Sin-t’ai district Stratigraphy Fossils from the lower Greate Fossils from the lower shale Fossils from the middle limestone . Fossils from the upper shale . Fossils from the upper limestone Vicinity of T’ai-an-fu South of Po-shan , Tsi-nan formation In the Ch’ang-hia district Stratigraphy Fossils in the Tsi-nan formation In the Sin-t’ai district Stratigraphy Fossils in the Tsi-nan In the Po-shan district Igneous rocks associated with the Satan eaten Pre-Carboniferous unconformity Carboniferous system Po-shan?coal-bearing foenaten In the{Sin-t’ai district Stratigraphy Fossils from Po-shan Coco In the Po-shan district Permo-Mesozoic Sin-t’ai series In the Sin-t’ai district In the Yen-chuang district In the Po-shan district Tertiary W6n-ho Eonpicenerate

CHAPTER III.—SrructuraL GEOLOGY OF SHAN-TUNG, by Bailey Willis General observations Method of discussion Structure of the T’ai-shan eanvler Metamorphism and folding Jointing Structure of the Sinian aysten! General considerations : Original lay of the strata Relative rigidities of the Sinian formatins Distribution of structures Structure of the Sinian in the Ch’ang- ite Aictvict Detailed observations Structure of the Sinian in the Sin- ai disteick Absence of folds Normal faulting In the Sin-t’ai disteict In general . : : : Detailsiof faulting 9)

PAGE.

34 34 35 36 36 38 39 40 41 41 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 45

46 48 49 49 49 49 52 aS Do 53 54 56 56 57 57

59 59 59 59 59

61 61 61 61 62 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 65

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.—StTrucTuRAL GEOLOGY OF SHAN-TUNG—Continued, In western Shan-tung Distribution Rate of displacement Date of faulting

CHAPTER IV.—PHYSIOGRAPHY OF SHAN-TUNG, by Bailey Willis General considerations : Surroundings and pherarter of ine mecaatats i district Descriptive analysis . Description of the plates ay valleys Description of the mountains Influence of normal faulting Adjustment of relief Adjustment of streams Character of relief before Patines Warping “yaw os : : Evidence of warping Date of warping Shan-tung a horst

CHAPTER V.—RECONNAISSANCE IN SOUTHWEST LiIAU-TUNG, by Eliot Blackwelder Introduction Itinerary : Geographic features . Geology Introduction Statement of Slee adons Gneissic complex Ta-ku-shan series Yung-ning sandstone Fu-chou series Volcanic rocks Correlation of series . Gneissic complex Ta-ku-shan series Yung-ning sandstone Fu-chéu series Volcanic rocks

SECTION II. NORTHWESTERN CHINA.

CHAPTER VI.—STRATIGRAPHY OF WESTERN CHI-LI AND CENTRAL SHAN-SI, by Bailey Willis and Eliot Blackwelder . Pre-Cambrian : : ; : : : : T’ai-shan complex In western Chi-li : Gneisses near T’ang-hién Gneisses along the Sha-ho Intrusives in the ancient gneisses .

In northern Shan-si . ; Granites in the Hin-chéu district : Gneisses in the Wu-t’ai district

Correlation

Unclassified Pecoehies Augen-gneiss Pei-t’ai gneiss

III

PAGE,

99 99 99 IOI

IOI 102 102 104 104 104 104 105 105 106

IV CONTENTS.

PAGE,

CHAPTER VI.—STRATIGRAPHY OF WESTERN CHI-LI AND CENTRAL SHAN-SI—Continued. Pre-Wu-t’ai unconformity 5 5 i ec TOS Wu-t’ai system . : F : : é A - : - c : : 109 Definition of the Wu- t’ai een ; : : ; - : : : : : . 109 Descriptions of observed sections . ; : ; : : : 2 : 5 . c 109 Shi-tsui section . : : ; : ; : : ; ; ; : : : ; 109 Shang-ho-miau section . oe 1 ee stl Siew ew Gteby qth Sleek: we hate oo ek CL Wu-t’ai-shan section - ; ; : : : : 112 Occurrence of conglomerate on as an- 2 ; : . : : : : : 114 Western section of the Wu-t’ai-shan . : : : ; ; ci : : - 115 Observations southeast of Yau-t’éu—.. : : ; : : : : a re5 Grouping and correlation of Wu-t’ai strata . : : : ; : : A : 116 Three groups distinguished. é ; : : F : : 2 : : : 116 Shi-tsui group . ; : : : : . , : : x 116 Nan-t’ai group . : : : : : : : : : : ; : : spy eI EF, Si-t’ai group. * : : : : : : 3 : : eT S| Correlation of the Wu- t’ai groups . : : : : : ; : 5 7) 19 Igneous intrusives . : : : , : : : : : : : : : 121 Metamorphosed nerusives : F : : : : , ; : - ; 121 Unaltered intrusives : ; d , : : : : : : ; 3 121 Pre-Hu-t’o unconformity eee ee cae i a oe ee RE: Hu-t’o system . ; : : : : P : : a ee : : ; ; 123 General sateen : : : : . : : : : : : . : 123 Observed sections . : , : ; A Fe : é 5 = , . 5 124 Distribution 2 . ; ; : 4 3 : A ; : . ‘3 124 Occurrences near Shi- tsui ; ; : F 5 3 A : 124 Hast of Liu-yuan 95 2 5) ee 1 ee Vicinity of Téu-ts’un : : : : : : : ; : : : : 125 Section of the Téu-ts’un group... Cer ss: 5) Se 5 ae GP ReTS Vicinity of Wu-t’ai-hién . ; : : : é : : : ; . ; 126 Section of the Tung-yii group wf es OR ey 0 al ee ee sed Pee be B20) West of Tung-yii ; ee ard ie 7: ts. oe Me ee: eet 27) In the Ki-chéu-shan : : : : : : , , : , : é 128 Intrusions in the Hu-t’o system. : : : 7 : : ; ; 129 Grouping and correlation within the Hu-t’o pees : : : : : : . 129 Pre-Ta-yang unconformity. : , : : : ; : : , : : 131 Ta-yang formation . : : : F 2 ; : ; é ; : - - : 131 General statement . : : : : ; : : : ; , 131 Distribution , : ; : c : - A : : : - 131 Vicinity of ee bien A F : : : : ; , : ; : : 132 Vicinity of T’ang-hién . : é : : : ; : : : 133 Igneous intrusions in the Ta-yang imestene : : 5 , é : : ; 5. Ves Correlation of the Hu-t’o and Ta-yang : ; - : - : : : : : 135 Paleozoic, by Eliot Blackwelder . ; : : ; ; , é ; : : : : ial Ge Pre-Sinian unconformity : : ; ; : : ne fe scar Pee Sinian system . : : : , F : : : : ; : : : ; ae ae General statement P : . ; : ; . : F A a A 137 Statement of observations. ; ; 4 ; - , , : : : a £390 Vicinity of Ning-shan, Chi-li . 3 : : : , : : e ; : : 139 South of Tai-chéu, Shan-si_. : : : A 2 : . é é : A 140 Vicinity of Téu-ts’un, Shan-si : 3 f : : sat : : - | £40 South of Wu-t’ai-hién ; : 4 5 . 4 ; i 5 3 143 Vicinity of Tung-yii eee er er Ah re eke! Sa 8 Se Bae Be ED

In the Ki-chéu-shan : : : ; . F : : , ; A . 5 146

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VI.—STRATIGRAPHY OF WESTERN CHI-LI AND CENTRAL SHAN-SI—Continued.

Pre-Shan-sian unconformity In Chi-li and Shan-si Shan-si system . General pestenent In the Ning-shan district : T’ién-hua-Yau-t’6u coal-field, Shan- -si . Tertiary : Ning-shan feeeiatin

CHAPTER VII.—StTRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF THE NING-SHAN BASIN, by Bailey Willis

CHAPTER VIII.—StrRuctTuRAL GEOLOGY OF THE Wu-T’arI District, by Bailey Willis . Enumeration of distinct structures : Structure of the T’ai-shan complex Banding and contortion . Structure of the Pre-Cambrian sediments Schistosity and folding of the Wu-t’ai schists Folding of the Hu-t’o series Structure of the Paleozoics : Shallow synclines and sharp anuicneds Statement of observations Occurrences east of Téu-ts’un Section on the Sing-ho Section on the Hu-t’o-ho Section in the Ki-chéu-shan Isolated hills east and north of the Shi- seep Vicinity of the Shi-ling Normal faulting ; Ki-chéu-shan fault Dates of episodes of deformation Pre-Cambrian episodes Post-Wu-t’ai derormetion Post-Hu-t’o deformation Paleozoic interval : ; Movement without Eeerreenicns Mesozoic deformation Episode of folding Tertiary movements Warping Quaternary movements Normal faults

CHAPTER IX.—OBSERVATIONS IN CENTRAL SHAN-SI . STRATIGRAPHY, by Eliot Blackwelder Introduction The Pre-Cambrian Paleozoic Sinian system Shan-si series STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY, by Bailey Willis General relations ; : Pre-Cambrian and Paleozoic . Observations en route Bearing of observations on pecial structure Normal faulting General relations of the normal fault aysten

PAGE.

147 147 148 148 148 149 151 15!

153

LW 157 157 157 157 157 158 159 159 159 159 160 161 162 163 163 163 163 164 164 164 164 165 165 165 165 166 166 166 166

167 167 167 167 169 169 170 171 171 71 171 174 175 181

vI CONTENTS.

CHAPTER X.—QUATERNARY: HUANG-T’U FORMATION OF NORTHWESTERN CHINA, by Bailey Willis General description . - Description of local occurrences :

Artesian waters of the Bay of Peking . The situation of Peking . The plain of Peking . The waters of Peking

CHAPTER XI.—PHYSIOGRAPHY OF NORTHWESTERN CHINA, by Bailey Willis Introduction Description of features along the route” The plain, Pau-ting-fu to Si-ta- oe Margin of the foothills : The Ning-shan district Bad Lands of the Sha-ho Mountains west of Féu-p’ing-hién Chi-li-Shan-si divide The Wu-t’ai-shan Northern Loess Basins The canyon of the Fén-ho, Ling: shi to Pring-yang- fu The Fén-ho below P’ing-yang-fu The development of streams . The T’ang-ho and fhe Hang: ho The Sha-ho below Féu-p’ing-hién . The Sha-ho above Féu-p’ing-hién . The T’ai-shan-ho, Hu-t’o-ho, and tributaries History of the ret -ho Physiographic stages Pei-t’ai stage T’ang-hién stage Hin-chéu stage . ; : Earlier theories of Chinese loess ee ey Geos Origin of materials of the Huang-t’u Climatic fluctuations Transportation of the Huang- ry u Physical characters of the Huang-t’u Geographic features . Fén-ho stage Correlation of physcrrscc stapes

SECTION III.

CENTRAL CHINA.

CHAPTER XII.—STRATIGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE YANG-TZi PROVINCE, by Eliot Blackwelder Pre-Cambrian Huang-ling granite- pene : Unconformity at the base of the Paleoeor f Paleozoic ; Nan-t’ou ioeinton : Basal quartzite and paced till Ki-sin-ling limestone Sin-t’an shale Wu-shan limestone . Permo-Mesozoic d Pre-K’ ui-chéu Srcontormity : K’ui-chéu series Age of the plant ede. in ihe Kui. een ‘basta, iy David White

PAGE, 183 183 185 196 196 198 200

203 203 203 203 204 205 206 206 208 208 210 220 222 226 226 229 230 233 234 236 237 238 242 242 245 246 248 249 254 256 261

265 265 265 266 266 267 267 269 273 274 277 277 277 280

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XIII.—SrructuraL GEOLOGY OF THE MIDDLE YANG-TZ] PROVINCE, by Bailey Willis Definition of the province 5.9% Yang-tzi section: I-chang to Wu- spao! hién

Details of the Yang-tzi section

Section across the Kiu-lung-shan .

Synclinorium: Wu-shan-hién to Kia hele -p’u San-shi-li-p’u to Miau-ir-t’an . Miau-ir-t’an to Sii-kia-pa Tung-kuan-k’é6u to Chén-p Rneaiita

Relations of the section across the Kiu-lung-shan General discussion Date of folding .

CHAPTER XIV.—GEOLOGY OF CENTRAL SHEN-SI, by Bailey Willis and Eliot Blackwelder . Observations in the Han province : : : : : Ts’in-ling-shan and Han valley General statement Description and inference Ch6n-p’ing-hién to ie fa Hing-an-fu to Shi-ts’iian-hién Shi-ts’iian-hién to Ts’ai-kia-kuan . Chang-k’é6u-shi to Liu-yiié-ho The granites of the Ts’in-ling mountains Late Mesozoic Shi-ts’ tian sandstone Pleistocene

CHAPTER XV.—PHYSIOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN SHEN-SI, by Bailey Willis Introduction Description of features flee ies route Range of the Ta-hua-shan Front of the Ts’in-ling-shan Heart of the Ts’in-ling-shan Summits of the Ts’in-ling-shan Southern slope of the Ts’in-ling-shan Review of the Ts’in-ling-shan Basin of Han-chung-fu Canyon of the Han . Basin of Hing-an-fu . Up the Nan-kiang .. : Watershed of the Yang- tef-Kiang : Gorges of the Yang-tzi-kiang . Physiographic stages a: Ts’in-ling stage . Yang-tzi stage . Correlation of physiographic stages

APPENDIX—TOPOGRAPHIC DATA .. Pierre eres Sie ee eS 5 < Table of altitudes, Chi-li and Shan -si - ae ee ek Table of altitudes, Hei-shui-k6u to Yang-tziriver . . . . . . .,

Traverse by boat down the Han river .

VII

PAGE, 285 285 285 285 288 288 289 291 291 293 293 295

299 299 299 299 299 301 305 308 310 314 316 316 317

319 321 321 321 321 322 324 325 326 327 328 328 331 332 334 336 336 337 338

341 343 349 350

PLATES.

1H II.

IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. ts XI. >, GH Bore XIV. XV. XVI. XVII.

XVIII.

XIX. »O.€

XXII.

XXIT.

XXIII

XXIV. XXV. XXVI.

XXVII. XXVIII. XXIX. XXX. XXXI. XXXII.

XXXITI. XXXIV. XXXV.' XXXVI. XXXVIT. XXXVITI.

XXXIX. XL.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE. General map of China. . ey ter wee aes) ee ee rontispieces Route and index map of Chi-li oad on -si 2 Fig. A. View of Bad Lands near Féu-p’ing-hién, Chi- ii 3 Fig. B. View near Pa-li-kuan, Shen-si a View near Shang-ho-miau on the T’ai-shan-ho, Shas -si 6 Canyon in the Ts’in-ling-shan, near Liu-yiié-ho, Shen-si 6 Index and route map of central Shen-si 10 Index and route map of southern Shen-si and Set- EN uan 10 Highway near Pa-kua-miau, southern Shen-si ; 12 Canyon of the Nan-kiang, near Chén-p’ing-hién, acuttea Chea -si 12 Summits of the Kiu-lung range, southern Shen-si 14 Canyon of the lower Ta-ning-ho, southern Shen-si 14 General map of Shan-tung 16 Geologic map of the Ch’ang-hia district . 58 Geologic map of the Sin-t’ai district 58 Structure sections, Ch’ang-hia and Sin-t’ai giceace Shan- joey 74 Reconnaissance in Liau-tung; map of route and observations 96 Fig. A. View from divide between Chi-li and Shan-si 102 Fig. B. Bluffs of Ta-yang limestone . , 102 Section of the Wu-t’ai (Algonkian) system on tie Tai- sha i AYES -si 110 View of side canyon of the O-shui-ho near Yen-t’6u, Shan-si . 140 View in the canyon of the T’ai-shan-ho southwest of Shi-pan-k’éu, Chass -si . 148 Fig. A. View of the Ta-hua-shan, near Hua-yin-hién, Shen-si 178 Fig. B. View of the western end of the Ta-hua-shan at Lin-tung, Shen -si 178 Fig. A. View of the Ts’in-ling-shan southeast of Chéu-chi-hién, Shen-si 178 Fig. B. View of the Ts’in-ling-shan southwest of Chéu-chi-hién, Shen-si 178 Map of Southern Shan-si and Northern Shen-si 182 Fig. A. View of the Huang-t’u formation near ‘T’ang- hién, Chit li 188 Fig. B. View of the Huang-t’u formation in the T’ién-hua field, Shan-si 188 Fig. A. Channel in the Huang-t’u formation east of Téu-ts’un, Shan-si 188 Fig. B. Interbedded wash in the Huang-t’u near T’ién-hua, Shan-si 188 Fig. A. View across the canyon of the Sing-ho south of Wu-t’ai-hién, Shae -si 192 Fig. B. View of upland basin filled with Huang-t’u east of Fang-lan-chén, Shan-si 192 View in the loess basin of Huang-t’u-chai, Shan-si : : : ; 192 View from the pass, Si-yan-ling, Shan-si 194 Roadway in the Huang-t’u, Shan-si 194 Sketch of the Wu-t’ai-shan, Shan-si 208 Sketch of the Wu-t’ai-shan, Shan-si 208 Fig. A. Pass in the Wu-t’ai-shan, Shan-si 210 Fig. B. View of the Wu-t’ai-shan, Shan-si, from ane t’ai 210 Fig. A. Pass in the Wu-t’ai-shan, Shan-si 210 Fig. B. Residual soil on the Wu-t’ai-shan, Shan-si 210 Fig. A. View in the Northern Loess Basins 214 Fig. B. View at Shi-pan-k’6éu, Shan-si 214 View of the summit of the Ki-chéu-shan, Cranes -Si 216 Geologic map of the Yang-tzi gorges 264 Fig. A. View of the Yang-tzi canyon at Nan-t ‘6u, He Sock 268 Fig. B. Bank of Cambrian till at Nan-t’6u on the Yang-tzi 268 Glaciated boulders from the till at Nan-t’6u on the Yang-tzi . 268 View of canyon of the Nan-kiang at Ku-niu-tu, Shen-si : 302 Fig. A. View of the Ts’in-ling mountains above Lung-t’an-ssi, Shen : 312 Fig. B. Canyon near Siau-wang-kién, Shen-si 312

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PLATES. XLI. Fig. A. Summits of the Ts’in-ling-shan near I,ung-t’an-ssi, Shen-si Fig. B. View near Lau-hién, Shen-si ; ; XLII. Sketch of the Ta-pai-shan, Shen-si XLII. Valley of the P’u-ho, Shen-si XLIV. Fig. A. View of Shi-ts’iian-hién, Shen-si Fig. B. Canyon of the Han-kiang below Han-wang- Ceara XLV. Fig. A. Valley of the Ping-li river, southern Shen-si . Fig. B. Valley in the Kiu-lung-shan, southern Shen-si XLVI. Aggraded upland valley near Pa-kua-miau, Shen-si XLVII. Fig. A. Pass of the Ki-sin-ling, southern Shen-si Fig. B. Canyon near Pa-ho, Ssi-ch’uan, on the Ta-ning- oe

XLVIII. Gorge near the head of the Nan-kiang, southern Shen-si

XLIX. View in the Kiu-lung-shan near Ta-miau-ssi, Ssi-ch’uan IL. Canyon in the Ki-sin-ling limestone near Sii-kia-pa, Ssi-ch’uan LI. Canyon in the Wu-shan limestone near Ta-ning-hién, Ssi-ch’uan

FIGORES.

I. 2 3 4. iS 6 7: 8

9. 10. yh E2. ie 14. 15. 16. ti Pe 18. 19. 20. 21. 22; 23% 24. 25. 26. 27.

28

30. he a2: 33- 34- 35- 36. 37- 38. 39. 40.

41

43.

Generalized section of sedimentary rocks of western Shan-tung Detail of T’ai-shan complex . : Granite including fragments of ancient gneiss Section of the Sinian system in the Ch’ang-hia district, Shan. dng Section of the Sinian system in the Sin-t’ai district, Shan-tung Section of Cambrian strata, Man-t’o butte, Ch’ang-hia, Shan-tung Section of Cambrian strata northeast of Sin-t’ai, Shan-tung

and 8a. Section of Cambrian strata in the Kiu-lung-shan, near Yen- eet Shan Shine Section of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician near Ch’au-mi-tién, Shan-tung Section of the Kiu-lung formation in the Kiu-lung-shan near Yen-chuang, prea: Section of faulted Cambrian strata near Kau-kia-p’u, Shan-tung . : Section of the Carboniferous and later formations near Yen-chuang, Shan-tung Partial section of the Carboniferous and Permo-Mesozoic near Yen-chuang, Shan-tung Section of the Sin-t’ai (Permo-Mesozoic), formation near Sin-t’ai-hién, Shan-tung Relations of the W6n-ho conglomerate near Sin-t’ai-hién, Shan-tung Generalized section of the rocks of the Wu-t’ai district, Shan-si Detail of the T’ai-shan complex near T’ang-hién, Chi-li Detail of the T’ai-shan complex near Féu-p’ing-hién, Chi-li Detail of the T’ai-shan complex near T’ang-hién, Chi-li Section of Pre-Cambrian 4 miles south of Shi-tsui, Shan-si Section of Téu-ts’un group near Liu-yiian, Shan-si Section of Hu-t’o strata overturned on Man-t’o shale, soukledst of Téu- ts’un, Shancs -si Section of Téu-ts’un slates near Wu-t’ai-hién, Shan-si Section of Tung-yii group, northeast of Tung-yii, Shan-si Section of Tung-yii strata, northwest of Tung-yii, Shan-si Unconformity of Ta-yang limestone on T’ai-shan complex near Wan- hién, “Chi- li

Unconformity of Ta-yang limestone on T’ai-shan complex, northwest of T’ang-hién, Chi-li

and 29. Relations of Pre-Cambrian granite to Ta-yang limestone, near Wan-hién, Chi-li

PAGE.

319 319 320 324 324 324 326 326 326 330 330 330 332 334 335

18 19 20 22 23 25 27

28-29

Unconformity between Ta-yang limestone and T’ai-shan complex near Wang-kuai-chén, Chi- li

Unconformable contact of Cambrian on Pre-Cambrian, in the Ki-chéu-shan, Shan-si

Unconformity between Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian near Chung-hua, Shan-si

Partial section of the Sinian system south of Tung-yii, Shan-si

Section of the Man-t’o formation near Yen-t’6u, Shan-si

Lower Sinian strata overthrust by Hu-t’o strata east of Téu-ts’un, Shanice -si

Sketch of overturned syncline in Ki-chéu limestone, east of Téu-ts’un, Shan-si .

Section on the Shi-t’ou-ho, Shan-si ;

Hu-t’o strata overthrust on Man-t’o shale near res t’ai- mene hans -si

Overthrust of Pre-Cambian on Cambrian near Chung-hua, Shan-si

Section of overthrust strata in foothills of the Ki-chéu-shan, Shan-si . a and 42. Unconformity at base of the Shan-si series, T’ién-hua coal-field, Shan-si

Section of Shan-si strata at Mi-chéng, Chi-li

147,

35

38

39

50

51

54

58

98 IOI 102 102 105 124 125 126 127 128 130 sey 132 134 137 138 139 141 142 142 143 143 146 149 148 149

x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIGURES.

44. Section of syncline, T’ién-hua field, Shan-si

45. Section of Shan-si coal-measures, ‘T’ién-hua field, Shak si

46. Section of syncline, Yau-t’6u district, Shan-si

47. Section of Ning-shan gravels, near Ning-shan, Chi-li

48 and 49. Sections of the Ning-shan coal-basin, Chi-li . j

50. Sketch of folds and overthrust in Ki-chéu limestone south of Wu- t’ai- i-hién, Shae -Si 51. Section of western end of the Ki-chéu-shan, Shan-si : 4

52. Section of the Shi-hia-shan, Shan-si

53. Section of the Shi-hia-shan, Shan-si, after Obratechny ;

54. Cross-section of the valley of the Huang-ho at Tung-kuan-ting, Shane -si aud Shen- -si

55. Diagram of normal fault of the Ta-hua-shan, Shen-si : : é ;

56. Profile of the Ta-hua-shan, Shen-si :

57. Map of streams near Wu-t’ai-hién, Shan-si

58. Map of the Sha-ho above Féu-p’ing-hién, Chi-li : 59. Generalized section of the formation in eastern Ssi-ch’uan and the ewes Yang-tzi gorges 60. Section of the basal Paleozoic strata at Nan-t’6u on the Yang-tzi-kiang

61. Section of the Wu-shan gorge of the Yang-tzi-kiang

62 and 62a. Section across the Kiu-lung-shan, Shen-si and Ssi- ayaa"

63, 64, and 65. Folds in the Wu-shan formation near Ku-niu-tu, Shen-si

ERRATA,

Page 88, line 17: for ‘‘distant”’ read ‘‘ distinct.”

Page 94, paragraph 3, line 5: omit the word “other.”

Page 99, paragraph 2, line 2: omit the first “‘g” from Re *

Page 161, line 10: for ‘‘1,200”’ read ‘‘ 2,000” aie for ‘‘350” read

Page 171, paragraph 1, lines 8 and g: transpose the latitudes and Ae idige given.

Page 204, paragraph 2, line 4: for ‘‘Mi-chong”’ read ‘‘ Mi-ch’6ng.”’

Page 210, last paragraph, line 4: for ‘‘Li-yiian-p’u” read ‘‘ Liu-yiian.”’

Page 238, lines 14 and 21: also in title of Plate XXXII, A, and elsewhere, for “saplite” read “‘saprolite.”’

Page 305, paragraph 2, line 7: for ‘‘Nu-wang-miau” read ‘‘Liu-wang-miau.”’

Page 312, Plate XL: for “‘Chiang-k’ou-shi” read ‘‘Chang-k’6u-shi.”’

Page 317, paragraph 2, line 1: for ‘‘subsequent page”’ read ‘‘ previous page (295).”

Page 334, paragraph 1, next to last line: for “‘Huang-yang”’ read Huang-ling.”

PAGE, 149 150 ISr 151 154 160 162 172 173 178 176 180 213 230 264 268 287 288-289 302, 303

PREFACE,

Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen, by his extensive exploration and penetrating research, laid the foundation for all future geologic work in China. In his journeys from the extreme south to the far north, from the eastern plains to the western ranges of the Empire, he observed all phases of geographic and geologic phenomena presented in that vast area, and grasped the problems broadly and strongly. His early views, pub- lished in 1878 and 1882, were developed in accordance with theories which were unchallenged until the last decade of the century, yet as they now stand in ‘‘China”’ they do not always do justice to the advance which he made, keeping abreast of the science. With marked hospitality of mind he welcomed each new fact, received every new view that came fairly accredited, and even though he might not adopt, he courteously enter- tained them. The plans of the expedition of 1903-04 were laid before him at their inception and were perfected through his advice. After our return the results were discussed with him in Berlin during March, 1905. We are privileged to say that he looked forward with cordial interest to the publication of these volumes, in which his name so often appears, and in earnest search for the truth would have justly reviewed whatever they present of reliable fact or induction. In sincere appreciation of his great contribution to knowledge of Asia, we record our deep indebtedness to him.

The plan of the Carnegie Expedition to China of 1903-04 was conceived by Dr. Charles D. Walcott, whose interest in geological science in general, and in the faunas of the Cambrian period in particular, had led him to a keen appreciation of the possibilities suggested by the results of Baron von Richthofen’s explorations. In accordance with Dr. Walcott’s purposes, the objects of the expedition were, from the first, purely scientific, yet comprehensive. It was intended that the scope of research should com- prise the stratigraphy and paleontology, the structure and physiography of the regions visited, and that the survey should be carried out with as much thoroughness as the local conditions might permit.

The first grant for execution of Mr. Walcott’s purpose was made in the autumn of 1902, and Dr. Arthur C. Spencer of the U. S. Geological Sur- vey was charged with the preparation of plans, in the expectation that he would carry them out. Later, when Mr. Spencer was obliged to forego the opportunity, I volunteered for the service and the expedition was intrusted to me. Mr. Eliot Blackwelder of the University of Chicago was chosen as associate geologist, and Mr. R. Harvey Sargent of the U. S.

xI

XII RESEARCH IN CHINA.

Geological Survey was asked to join us in China as topographer of the expedition, in case it should be found that we could avail ourselves of his services.

In July, 1903, Mr. Blackwelder and I sailed for Europe, and after con- ference with scientists abroad, went by the Siberian railroad to Peking, where we arrived late in September. The Chinese authorities, already advised of the scientific purpose of the expedition, courteously accorded us every facility, and early in October we proceeded to the province of Shan-tung, where the remainder of the autumn was spent in detailed geologic studies of two selected areas, and in general observations en route from Tsi-nan-fu to Tsing-tau. We returned to Tientsin December 11, and after brief preparation Mr. Blackwelder left, with a single Chinese companion, for Liau-tung, where he conducted a reconnaissance in the peninsula north of Port Arthur.

With Mr. Sargent, who had joined us, I remained at Tientsin making preparations for the journey to central China, which had been determined upon after consideration of several alternative plans. During the Christ- mas week, in response to a request of the American Minister, Hon. E. H. Conger, I made a study of and report on the artesian water conditions of Peking.

The journey to central China and thence to Shanghai occupied the first five and a half months of 1904. Our route was so chosen as to avoid, over long distances, that pursued by von Richthofen, and yet was so related to his that a comparison and checking of observations was prac- ticable. From Pau-ting-fu in the province of Chi-li we went westward 150 miles to the Wu-t’ai-shan, the highest range in northern Shan-si, and thence southward 100 miles to the old city of T’ai-ytian-fu, where we arrived early in March, having spent two winter months in the bleak and inhospitable mountains. The cold was, however, never very severe, as the thermometer did not fall below zero Fahrenheit; there was but little snow, and the weather was generally favorable for topographic and geologic work, except for occasional dust storms, which clouded the atmosphere.

From T’ai-yuan-fu, Shan-si, to Si-an-fu, Shen-si, we had hoped to pro- ceed by an indirect route, which should include a survey of the Huang-ho in its long course from north to south between the two provinces, but it became evident that such an undertaking would delay us till the months before the beginning of the rainy season in central China had elapsed; and in a choice between the two sections the advantage seemed to lie with southern Shen-si. Accordingly we proceeded as rapidly as possible, via the great highway from T’ai-yiian-fu to Si-an-fu, and reached the latter city on the rst of April.

We proposed to continue our journey from Si-an-fu to the Yang- tzi by some route not previously surveyed. It chanced that just at that